Category Archives: Garden Design

Master-planning country estates and large gardens

Image copyright Ketih Hornblower, commissioned by Bowles & Wyer for a garden in Surrey

I recently was asked to give a talk at the landscape show on the subject of Master-planning country estates and large gardens – what do you do when confronted by several acres and an expectant client?

Estate master-planning is an area in which Bowles & Wyer have considerable experience, built up particularly over the last decade or so, in this country and internationally. So, question 1 –

What is master-planning? And how is it different from design?

There is often confusion about the differences between design and master-planning. Many inexperienced designers approach a master plan in the same way they would a garden design – they do some analysis, but often quite quickly get bogged down in shape making and fail to think radically about what is needed – they think in terms of features and style rather than areas and networks.

    • Masterplans establish a framework of land use spaces or zones, connected by a distribution network. It is within this framework that design occurs.

Which leads us naturally to question 2 –

What processes should you go through to masterplan a site?

There are three basic stages – Information gathering, Analysis and Design. Remember the S-A-D process you were taught at college? This applies doubly to landscape (or any) master-planning.  There is a fourth process that overlays this, which is stakeholder engagement. In the public realm this is a continuous and multi-layered procedure. However, for private projects, although important, it is more straightforward.

1. Information gathering stage

Magic maps (https://magic.defra.gov.uk/) can be a really useful resource in desk surveys.
  • Before you go to site, before you start on anything else, it is good to carry out a thorough desktop study into background information. Web-based sources like magic map are useful for this – look at designations, neighbouring land uses, local planning applications, planning history, etc.
  • The next step obviously is to Visit the site: spend as much time there as possible. Walk around the whole area and take lots of photos.
  • Talk to people who know the site well. Obviously, this may include the owner, but also site managers, gardeners, people who have had previous dealings there (other designers, tree surgeons, local authority officers etc.). This information can be invaluable.
This is a slope analysis for a site we master-planned in the south of France – the red areas show the steepest slopes.
  • Again this may seem obvious, but Aspect and topography are crucial – they have a major bearing on almost everything. Resist the temptation to start formulating design solutions until all the information is analysed and collated. In most cases, aspect and topography are likely to be bigger drivers of the final masterplan than the client brief.
  • Use aerial or satellite photography
    • Look back at previous cached satellite/aerial pics to get an idea of history/change on the site. This is not always easy, but can be really useful.
    • Sometimes useful for looking at seasonal change – not all photographs are taken at the same time of year.
    • Combine overlays and aerial photography – we find this a really useful methodology and it makes sure that your design process is always pinned back to site.

  • Other Surveys may also be useful:
    • Commission a tree survey if possible, or in the case of a woodland a walking woodland health survey. Generally very useful, although sometimes you have to convince the client to spend the money.
    • Commission ecological survey information – especially if there is a lot of semi-wild (or wild) landscape.
    • Hydrological information – if Hydrology or drainage are an issue, then this is vital in formulating solutions.
    • If abroad, local climate
  • What is the house going to be used for?
    • Main residence – family use? Is it going to be a low-key home for the family?
    • Holiday or country home? If so what are the times of year of visits?
    • Entertaining (shooting, country house parties, etc)? How many guests and how often? Sometimes larger houses have to virtually function as hotels – if so, you need to consider this from the start.

2. Analysis stage

  • What are the overriding physical constraints that affect the site?
    • What further research is needed? Often a consideration of this stage throws up extra research that can be useful to undertake.
    • What is the nature of the constraints?How can they be mitigated to meet the client brief?
  • How are the client requirements going to impact on the site?
    • How might these change over time?
    • How might the various client uses have different impacts? Sometimes these can be in conflict – quiet family use and formal large-scale entertaining for example require a completely different approach.
    • What land use zones need to be near the house and which can afford to be further afield? Swimming pools for example generally need to be near the house. Ditto kitchen gardens. Games pitches or tennis courts can be a little further away, whilst woodland walks, lake etc. can be quite distant.
  • Budget and timescale
    • What are the client’s time horizons (and are they realistic)?
    • Are there overriding budget constraints? Although be warned, it is best not to get sucked into budgetary discussions too early.
    • What future management or maintenance resources are likely to be available? This needs to be one of the earliest questions you ask.
  • Context
    • What bearing does the context of the site have on usage and design?
    • How might land use on neighbouring plots change in the foreseeable future change and what are the implications? It is not uncommon for example to find neighbouring farmland under threat of future development – this has happened to us during the master planning process at least three times that I can think of.
    • Analyse key views across the surrounding countryside, particularly from the house. These need to managed rather than just kept. Use clumps of trees or other objects to mask unwanted parts of a view.

3. Design Stage

  • Access and distribution are important
    • Look at the journey that visitors will make when approaching the house. Not all should be revealed at once – there should be a serial vision as to how the design unfolds.
    • Think of day-to-day use by the family; this may well be different from guests.
    • For larger houses in particular, think of servicing. Remember that a very large house with say 15-20 bedrooms acts like a hotel when full for a weekend or other event. There will need to be drop-off and parking for guests, parking for staff, but also separate access for food, drink laundry and other deliveries. This needs to work smoothly and as nearly as possible, invisibly.
    • Security may be an important factor for some clients. This has a significant bearing on communications and distribution networks
    • You will also need to think about how maintenance equipment (such as minitractors, mowers etc) move about the site.
  • Uses:
    • The internal and external uses need to be aligned. For example, main reception room and spilling out space; pool room and sun terraces. We had one project where the architect completely reworked the internal layout when we pointed out the potential of the views and west facing façade.
    • Consider grouping uses together where feasible – entertaining or grander spaces, family use spaces, sports and outdoor activities (tennis, swimming, trampoline, play equipment etc.) There may be scope for spaces to have more than one use.
    • Think about practicalities for gardeners – composting, equipment storage etc, but also WC and break facilities.
A Spectacular view from an estate in Hertfordshire – image copyright Quintin Lake
  • Views and spaces
    • Look to ‘manage’ key views. It may be that removal of some trees (or groups) may open beautiful views. Alternatively, there may be other features (pylons, buildings etc) that can be hidden by tree planting. Consider using landform for this as well, preferably combined with tree planting.
    • Segues between spaces are crucial. This is particularly important where uses vary between spaces.
  • Finally, style – this should be quite a long way down the list. Land use and practicality are much more important.

Calming the Chaos

The following is a blog from Max Harriman, one of the most recent (and talented!) additions to our design team at Bowles & Wyer. You can reach him on Max@BowlesWyer.co.uk. The garden is currently under construction and due to open next week – please visit!

A hi-view perspective

‘Mental health’ is the buzzword of the moment, and for good reason. One in four people in the UK will suffer a diagnosable mental health problem each year [1]. Unsurprisingly, the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders increases by up to 20% for urban dwellers [2]. Urban life is stressful; increased social stresses, high population densities, disturbed chrono-biological rhythms and increased pollution are all major contributors. However, a surge of recent research has also pointed to the link between poor mental health and the lack of contact with the natural world or ‘Green Space’.

Plan of the Tatton garden

On 2nd July I, and a team from Bowles & Wyer, began the build of a show garden of my own design selected to compete in the Young Garden Designer of the Year competition. The competition, run by the RHS, allows the opportunity for aspiring designers just starting their careers, to exhibit a show garden for a chance to win the coveted title. This year’s theme for the competition was to design a garden that highlights the benefits plants and gardening have on health and wellbeing. I decided to focus primarily on mental health, designing a garden to maximise the restorative benefits green space has on our mental fitness, particularly for those of us living in the urban context.

A perspective view of the Tatton garden from the front

My garden ‘Calm in Chaos’ was inspired by scientific literature surrounding the subject as well the realisation of the importance of green space in the urban environment having moved to London two years ago. The stresses of urban life are pacified when in the garden, transporting the guest far from the hustle and bustle to a woodland-like setting. Design elements aim to distract and absorb the guest, to take their mind off the associated stresses of city life. The garden is also designed to prolong the time the visitor spends in the space, therefore maximising the effects of the associated restorative benefits.

An elevation of the garden at Tatton from the front

I designed the garden around four main elements of the natural world that have been proven to have a positive impact on mental health in the urban environment [3]. The first is the feeling of ‘being away’ or removal from the city hardscape, which goes hand in hand with the second, the notion of scale or the feeling of extent in a space. Overthinking or rumination is a common symptom of mental health problems, so the third element is fascination or captivation to distract the guest’s attention away from the stresses of urban life, if only for a moment. Finally, the last intended element of the design was accessibility. I wanted the green space to be useable and inviting to encourage entry and therefore exploitation of the positive effects the garden would generate.

Escape

Gardens have the power to transport us to another place, which is the one of the main concepts behind ‘Calm in Chaos’. By using visual cues, for example planting style, the guest is psychologically removed from the urban setting. The feeling of escape on sight of the garden, and then once crossing its threshold, hypothetically would increase the uptake of restorative benefits. The path in the garden is made of compacted gravel to convey an ‘off the beaten track’ aesthetic far removed from the concrete and tarmac constant of urban life. The naturalistic woodland style of the planting is adopted to give the visitor the impression of being as far removed as possible from city life. A woodland planting palette was also chosen as walking through woodland has been proven to be an effective preventative health care measure: lowering blood pressure, reducing stress hormones and boosting the immune system.

Extent

Space in cities is scarce, and green spaces even more so, therefore ‘extent’ or an impression of scale was an important element of the garden to address. The winding path is essential to the design; snaking and meandering through the garden, it maximises the space and increases the sense of scale. The main feature of the garden is the series of timber posts that frame this winding path. The posts create a porous barrier through the space that only allows small glimpses through certain areas, adapting to the moving perspective of the guest as they walk along the path. The dynamic concealing and revealing of views in the garden is designed to give the impression of a larger expanse of space.

Distraction

Taking your mind off something is not always an easy task, especially for those who suffer from anxiety and depression. The natural world, however, is full of ‘soft fascinations’- things that can hold your attention in an effortless fashion such as waves hitting a beach or rustling leaves. Therefore, ‘distracting’ elements were a significant consideration whilst designing the garden. Planting in the garden was designed to include a multitude of leaf forms, shapes and textures (much like a natural woodland) to visually stimulate guests. Increased fascination distracts guests from their urban stresses, makes them pause, slow down and ultimately increase the time spent in the garden. The posts, obscuring views whilst opening up new ones, are designed to entice and captivate visitors. The calming effects of water are also well documented, increasing creativity as well as possessing restorative qualities of its own. Water evokes a child-like fascination in all of us and people are generally attracted to it, so I have placed a reflective water dish central to the garden.

Accessibility

Compatibility of urban green spaces and its intended use is important. I often notice public green spaces that are not only unimaginative and repetitive, but also seem not to encourage exploration or spending time long enough to achieve any associated benefits. Sure, it can look great – but can you use it? Do you want to use it? The path in ‘Calm in Chaos’ plays an integral role in inviting the visitor into the garden, with the water bowl and bench providing an enticing destination point. This is the best place to enjoy the garden. It encourages entry into the space and will ultimately be the place where guests stop, sit down, whilst immersed in greenery and soak up the restorative effects of the design.

Research has shown that those living in urban areas close to green spaces are significantly less likely to suffer poor mental health [4]. Interaction with nature and the integration of green spaces into our busy modern lives will undoubtedly become increasingly important in reducing the prevalence of mental health issues – a daunting but very exciting prospect!

‘Calm in Chaos’ will be exhibited at the RHS Tatton Park Flower show from the 18th-22nd of July. More notably the show garden will be relocated and transformed into a permanent feature garden at Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge after the show to be used and enjoyed by patients and friends and families of patients alike.

How the garden will look once it is installed at Addenbrookes Hospital
How the garden will look once it is installed at Addenbrookes Hospital
How the garden will look once it is installed at Addenbrookes Hospital

Elements of ‘Calm in Chaos’ were kindly sponsored by Groundwork UK and UBS Wealth Management. I would also like to thank the following supporters of the garden.

  • London Stone
  • Crowders Nursery
  • AllGreen
  • The Pot Company
  • Hedges Direct

References:

1] McManus et al. (2007) Adult psychiatric morbidity in England: 2007 results of a household survey [online] Available at: https://digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/publications/statistical/adult-psychiatric-morbidity-survey/adult-psychiatric-morbidity-in-england-2007-results-of-a-household-survey [Accessed 17.06.18]

2] Peen et al. (2010) The current status of urban – rural differences in psychiatric disorders. Acta. Pyschiatric. Scand. 121(2) 84-93

3] Kaplan S. (1995) The restorative benefits of nature: towards an integrative framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology 15 169-182

4] Richardson et al. (2013) Role of Physical activity in the relationship between urban green space and health. Public Health 127:4 318-324

 

25 years in drawings

What stories do drawings tell us? Each site, each client is different and each drawing represents a snapshot in time. Some of you may have seen the invitation that we sent out for our 25th anniversary party. We wanted to choose some drawings to represent the last 25 years of Bowles and Wyer. This was not an easy task – there are thousands of them! Each of the drawings we chose tells a story.

IMAGE No1 – A garden in Parliament Hill. Project 100

At the beginning of 1992 I was lead designer at Clifton Nurseries. I left there in the May of that year, two months after the birth of our first child (the illustrator and graphic designer, Polly Wyer: http://pollywyer.co.uk). My first project under my own name (job number 100 – I didn’t want to start at 1!) was a garden in parliament Hill, Hampstead. This was an interesting project – a ground floor flat belonging to a fund manager. The garden had two awkward features. One was a large angled rectangular ‘bite’ out of the plot. the other was more fundamental. The apartment had been extended out over the previous patio so that only about 70cm of flat space remained. Beyond that all you saw from inside was a retaining wall over one metre high and a load of weeds at the upper level. To combat this, I designed a ‘scoop’ of space at the lower level, leading up a flight of steps to a landing at an intermediate level. My solution to the odd shaped plot was to divide the space along two radii; one to a small circular sitting area to the left and the other to a narrow vista to a sculpture or pot. I remember doing this drawing; it was drawn by hand at home, around 10pm the day before I was meeting the client! I still like the design now. It went on site almost immediately and was my first project to be finished. The profit from this was basically my seed capital for the business.

IMAGE No2 – A trellis feature in Wilton Crescent, Belgravia. Project 154

 

A spot of Classical trelliswork! This was for a very grand house in Belgravia. A year has passed since the last project. The brief was to provide a shelf for planting at first floor level opposite the dining room and ‘something to look at’. This drawing got us the rest of the project and formed the basis of a long working relationship with PDP, with whom we still work today (Regent’s Crescent and Kings Road). Looking back I am fascinated to see the detail I went into with the notes and the fact that I combined presentation and construction on one drawing! All looks a bit classical now as well, although I do like it!

IMAGE No3 – Thames Court Roof Garden. Project 460

Although never built, this was one of my favourite projects. We were approached by the developers to design a roof terrace for a speculative office development overlooking the Thames in Central London. For the first time, we looked at the space in a really different way – back to first principles. The environment on roof terraces is always extreme – sunnier, windier, colder, hotter than it is at ground level. This design was strongly driven by its context. In terms of its physical environment, this led us to look at other similar environments and their ecologies. Cliff-tops, foreshores, dry hillsides and the like. This in turn drove the plant selection. It also led us to specify thinner, less fertile soils which required low levels of irrigation and were lighter. The historical context also played a part. the swooping lines on the drawing represent the different shorelines of the Thames over previous 2000 years or so and are expressed as cuts running through the timber decking. The ‘view contours’ of the St Paul’s visibility corridor were also influential in the design. This scheme permanently changed the way in which we approached all projects, but roof terraces in particular. (Drawings by Stephen Richards)

IMAGE No4 – Seafield House. Project 1155

One of the more unusual projects we worked on – conversion of a former nuclear bunker into a luxury home. The building and site had lain empty and unused for years. This was a challenging scheme, but also a fascinating one. This was the first time we began to merge three different media to give a cohesive drawing style – hand drawing, 3D packages (in this case SketchUp) and Photoshop. This combination is still at the centre of how we render work thirteen years later. (drawing by Neil Percival)

IMAGE No5 – The Lancasters. Project 1115

This was one of the most unusual (and for us iconic) projects we have worked on. We were approached by Northacre, a client with whom we had worked for many years, on a new development overlooking Hyde Park. I was struck by the flamboyancy of the original façades – the way they overlooked the park reminded me of promenade buildings. Later I discovered the architect had been influenced by French design, particularly on the Riviera. Following a lot of research, we came up with a design based on ornate contemporary C19th motifs, cut and pasted – almost sprinkled – in a randomised pattern along the garden. The scheme was finished of with a row of 6-7m high fan palms in front of the façade. The client was so delighted with this that they adopted the palm tree and the idea of travel to the Riviera as a theme for all the marketing for the event. (drawing by Neil Percival)

IMAGE No6 – A Hampstead Garden. Project 2160

This sketch is for a project about to go on site. The style layering digital and hand drawing is typical of the way we present designs at the moment. You can read more about how we build these up to the finished drawing in a separate blog-post: ‘Anatomy of a sketch’

So there it is – 25 years in six drawings. From the first one drawn in my flat in London in the spare room to the final one worked on by three different people and across three different software packages and hand drawings. The fascinating thing is that hand drawings are a consistent thread from 1993 to 2018.

 

if you want to read more about the history of Bowles & Wyer, go to ‘Who is Chris Bowles, How did it all start and where do we go from here?’

Here’s to the next 25 years!

 

Two gardens in Massachusetts

Last summer I spent a few weeks in the United States, travelling round seeing friends and family. We visited Texas, Tennessee, North Carolina, Boston and the Berkshires, where we went to a delightful wedding. While we were there, we took in a couple of interesting gardens.

‘The Mount’ viewed from the garden behind its serried ranks of conifers
The very green-looking garden

The first was Edith Wharton’s house from 1902-1911, ‘The Mount’ in Lenox, MA. Although delightful, this was in many ways what you would expect a New England garden to be: derivative of European Gardens, but with the scale and confidence of American sensibility. Wharton reputedly designed the garden (and the house) herself, living there for only about a decade, but ploughing much of her earnings from her books into it. However, what is interesting about the differences between this and European gardens is the use of plant material. It is distinctly North American – the use of rank upon rank of spruces and other conifers in particular. In fact, one of the distinguishing things about the garden is its sheer greenness – we went there in late June and it felt really fresh, despite the high summer temperatures.

The main avenue cuts assertively through the garden parallel to the house.
Interesting layering here – very American in style and plant choice (and noticeably C20th) but European in influence
The interesting (but slightly scary) change in level between the main avenue and the formal gardens below the house.

I also like the arrangement of the formal elements, the way in which the main avenue cut through the design, masking sharp changes in level. The house sits on high ground and has a commanding view over the garden, as you might expect. Plenty of flowers here, surrounded by pleasant rolling park and woodlands. There is also a stone plaque, with a delightful inscription which almost serves as mantra for life: ‘In spite of illness, in spite even of the archenemy sorrow, one can remain alive long past the usual date of disintegration if one is unafraid of change, insatiable in intellectual curiosity, interested in big things and happy in small ways.’

Naumkeag – actually a far more homely place than it appears here. Although grand, it did have the feel of a family house.
The Oak tree under which Joseph Choate picnicked as a child is the main feature of one of the terraces.

The second garden we visited was Naumkeag, in Stockbridge MA, just a few miles from The Mount. The name is of American Native origin, although it was originally the name of a people rather than a place. The house and garden have an interesting history. It was originally designed for a prominent New York lawyer, Joseph Choate and his family, although it was later much added to and changed by his daughter Mabel. Choate had a deep emotional involvement with the place, having picnicked as a child under a large oak tree whilst on summer vacation nearby with his parents. He later acquired the land and set to building a house and garden for his own family. Interestingly, the commission for the garden design was originally offered to Frederick Law Olmstead, but his designs were rejected after he suggested locating the house where the oak tree was situated – a lesson in ignoring a client’s brief perhaps! The tree still stands and forms a focal feature in the garden. Although the early gardens were laid out by Nathan Barrett in the 1880s, they were considerably expanded and altered after Choate’s death by Fletcher Steele over a 30-year period from 1925-1956 under the guidance of Choate’s daughter Mabel.

Not quite sure what the influence here is… Gondolas?

As with other New England gardens, Naumkeag draws deeply upon the European Well although there are also several very unusual features in the garden. The house sits high up on the lower shoulders of the hillside, with spectacular views over the valley. The ground falls away beneath it in a succession of levels down to the valley floor. Away to the left of the house (looking out) sits a curious eclectic garden a small parterre, and carved timber poles which could have come straight from Venice.

I really like these riveted slate steps.

 

From this, beautiful riveted slate steps lead down from one side to a terrace, with the oak tree sitting away to one side on the ‘picnic lawn’. A rill runs from this level right the way down through the garden. It is an interesting feature – the water first begins to flow over several regularly spaced steps.

The beginning of the rill
This rill takes the water on the first stage of its long journey through the garden.

These set up a pulse in the water which is still evident several metres further down the rill. However, it is the feature beneath this that is Naumkeag’s (and arguably Fletcher Steele’s) most famous feature – the ‘Blue steps’.

The famous blue steps. Note the logarithmic step riser and treads.

A central rill runs through the feature, with a series of arched grotto-like spaces with landings above. One of the things that make this such a fascinating feature is the logarithmic steps which descend sideways from each landing to meet at a lower landing below each grotto; ‘blue’ because of the concrete used (itself an unusual feature).

The pleasantly understated planting that is the setting for the blue steps

The setting is admirably restrained with simple undergrowth and Aspen trees. It is in stark but playful contrast to the ebullient delphinium beds beneath.

Naumkeag’s other famous feature is Steele’s last piece of work at the property – the rose garden, although to my mind this does not quite work. Although the shapes are interesting, the roses seem at odds with the design – indeed all the various elements feel at odds with one another.

The rose garden – Fletcher Steele’s final addition

A much more pleasing feature is the formal garden below and to the right of the house. Here (as at The Mount) the interplay between European design and American plant material is at its most obvious. Steele plays skilfully with the serial views and perspective. Above it towers a ‘thunder house’ very reminiscent of the one at Hidcote, although if anything rather better – certainly grander. It was supposedly a place for ‘assignations’ which could be both observed from the house but private at the same time. Finally, a (for me) disappointing Chinese garden – a mish-mash of imported ideas and titbits from the Far East.

The view form the thunder house – supposedly used for ‘assignations’.

The curious thing about Naumkeag is that Steele was actually at his best when he wasn’t trying too hard. The picnic lawn, the formal gardens and the thunder house all have a comfortable elegance which is confident but accessible. The Chinese Garden, the Parterre and the Rose Garden on the other hand, all have a very self-conscious character which gets in the way of one enjoying them. The great exception to this is the blue steps, which is not only a masterpiece, but strikingly inventive and original.

If you are in Western Massachusetts at all, I would recommend a visit to both gardens, but particularly to Naumkeag.

Biosecurity at Highgrove

 

The horticultural and arboricultural world seems have to been beset by one wave of pest and disease after another. From Box blight to Oak Processionary Moth, Ash Dieback to Bleeding Canker and horse chestnut leaf miner every onslaught is as distressing and threatening than the last. Why is this, and perhaps more importantly, what can we do about it? Two weeks ago, I went to a conference on biosecurity and plant health which attempted to answer some of these and other questions.

The caterpillars of the Oak processionary moth Thaumetopoea processionea. This pest is already in the UK.

The conference was staged by Prince Charles at Highgrove House in Gloucestershire. At first, I have to say that I was initially rather sceptical. I received a somewhat mysterious invitation from Sir Nicholas Bacon. Mysterious in that it gave precious little details about the conference (other than that it was at Highgrove and the general subject matter). However, on acceptance, more information flowed. I was sceptical because there has been much said and written on the subject of biosecurity in the last few years, but actually precious little action. I wondered if this was to be another talking shop. It was far from that. Principally because of the draw of Highgrove House and its illustrious owner, nobody could turn down an invitation. As a result, the assembled company covered the owners and managers of many of Europe’s leading nurseries, UK importers, leading garden and landscape designers, foresters, contractors and other representatives from the industry. There were also members of the government including Lord Gardiner (the Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Rural Affairs and Biosecurity), Professor Dr Nicola Spence (Chief Plant Health Officer to the UK Government) and the Secretary of State for DEFRA Michael Gove (as well of course of one other notable guest!). The discussions that followed were generally of a similar calibre to the delegates.

Xylella fastidiosa

The morning session was largely taken up with speakers from different sides of the industry outlining the issues we face (particularly from Xylella fastidiosa, which was never far from the conversation). They began to venture on to solutions, but this was largely left to the afternoon.

Leaf Scorch on Oleander caused by Xylella

Global warming is often blamed for the spread of new pathogens and pests. Although this Is in part true, there are many other causes of which increased trade is the principal. Because of this, three overlapping strains of argument began to emerge fairly early on. The first of the was that of traceability (as in other industries such as food production or pharma). This accepted that trade would happen but argued that being able to trace the source of any infection would allow swift action to be effective in finding and isolating the source of the outbreak. The second was one of cooperation. This considered trade as inevitable and saw the solutions coming out of a collaborative process and good communication. The last was an opposing one which saw quarantine and strong border controls as the way forward. This had the added attraction of supporting the UK nursery industry. Although the arguments swayed back and forth, it became clear that the solutions probably lay in a combination of all three approaches.

Olives, one of the main plants at risk from Xylella and also one of the carriers.

In the afternoon, we broke up into tables of ten people to discuss the issues in more detail and propose solutions. there was some brisk discussion (at least on our table). While people agreed on many subjects, there was disagreement on others. At the end of the day we were joined by Prince Charles and Michael Gove and the chairman (Alan Titchmarsh) summed up the findings. There were a number of things that emerged:

  1. Awareness. All agreed that there needed to be more education about the issues involved, not only within the industry but in the broader public, particularly at air and sea ports. Better leaflets and other information needed to be readily available in places where people buy plants.
  2. Certification. A scheme of certification for nurseries is needed to ensure that all nurseries are complying with good practice, particularly those exporting.
  3. Traceability. It is essential that plants can be traced back to there source so that in the event of any infection being discovered, the source of the outbreak can be quickly discovered and isolated.
  4. Responsible Person. these should be one person in every nursery and plant retail centre who is trained and responsible for biosecurity. This might be extended to include landscape firms.
  5. Border Controls/Quarantine. There was considerable discussion and no real agreement on this. Many people felt that the plants that are the most prolific carriers of Xylella fastidiosa in particular should be banned from import (this is about ten plants on the list of 300). Others felt that 12-month quarantines needed to be put in place instead. This is unlikely to be entirely effective, partly because some of the plants are short term crops (such as lavender and rosemary) and also because  Xylella can take up to 18 months to become evident. Quarantining can also concentrate the infection and give a hotspot which is near other plants, unless it is done very carefully.

I left the conference not only more educated about the issues, but also determined to do something more on this, both in my own organisation and more widely.

The Journeys we Make to Become Gardeners.

(Written by Jeff Stephenson. Head of Horticulture and Aftercare at Bowles & Wyer)

A glimpse into my student days at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; 

As we made our way up the steep wooden ladders, which were perilously lashed (Heath Robinson fashion), to the gnarled root encased hillside, our t-shirts already clinging to our backs with sweat; we looked up through the morning gloom and dense canopy to make out  the mottled buff-grey stone wall of Temple IV  up ahead of us. We emerged around dawn onto the precarious stone terraces of the structure to sit and rest, drawing breath whilst we surveyed the dizzying panorama now displayed. The moisture laden air swirled below us like a low  fog over the sea. As the sun rose higher in the sky the white blanket of mist slowly rolled back, revealing one of the most memorable and awe inspiring views I had ever witnessed. My heart was beating fast in my chest. There, set out in emerald green, was the Guatemalan rainforest.

 

 

View towards Temple IV showing summit shrine; Tikal, Guatemala.

Majestic Kapok trees, festooned with Spanish moss and orchids, shouldered their way above the uninterrupted canopy which, when viewed from way up here, looked like tufts of lichen attached to a diorama. A cacophony of shrills, melodic woodwind like whoops and deep baritone honks could be heard emanating from the impenetrable green below. The hollow reverberating primeval ‘chant’ of howler monkeys could be identified in the distance.  A small flock of Scarlet Macaws in red,  blue and yellow passed in spirit-like effortless flight over the tree tops , whilst a pair of toucans bobbed and cavorted through the bows of a nearby tree, turning their heads on their sides to inquisitively eye each other, seemingly unhindered by their oversized tangerine bills. 

I couldn’t believe I was really here amidst such rich natural beauty; I was in the heart of the ancient Mayan city of Tikal.”

  • Excerpt from my R.B.G. Kew Travel Scholarship Diaries; Tikal, Guatemala; 18th September 1992.

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A client once said to me, only a few years ago and with much sincerity;

“When are you going to get a proper job, not just gardening?”

Unfortunately it is all too often that many people outside of our profession make assumptions about exactly who and what gardeners are and where they have come from. They have a very narrow perception of how large, interesting and diverse the horticultural industry is and how long good gardeners have spent in training (which never finishes), or indeed where it may have taken them.

My journey:

I began the Kew Diploma in Horticulture back in 1989 with much trepidation, being surrounded by extremely bright students with amazing backgrounds. I’d already studied sciences but only spent one year learning horticulture and countryside management at Capel Manor College in Enfield whilst also volunteering with The Colne Valley Park Groundwork Trust; my peers had spent years at places such as R.H.S. Wisley, Hampton Court Palace and Singapore Botanic Gardens. I was woefully outmatched, so I set myself on a route of committed study to justify being amongst my classmates.

Kews’ intensive programme covers everything from systematics and genetics to surveying and landscape design. One day you are dissecting flowers under a microscope, another you are micro-propagating orchids in a test tube.  With plant identification tests, every fortnight, covering wide agenda such as ‘The Palm House’, ‘The Pinetum’ or ‘The Order Beds’, you had to quickly build up your observation and recall abilities. We were privy to lectures from Kews’ own scientific and living collections staff (favourites included Mike Maunder and Tony Kirkham) and external lecturers with the likes of John Brookes, Peter Thoday,  Sir Roy Strong and Brita von Schoenaich.  Studies were both ‘in house’ and held at other centres such as West London Institute of Higher Education (now part of Brunel University), Otley College (Suffolk) and Writtle College (Chelmsford); we were influenced by wide ranging teaching styles and facilities.

Appennine Colossus; Villa di Pratolino, Tuscany.

There were study trips to Tuscany to see Medici Villas and Pistoia’s nurseries and field trips to Dorset and Sussex to survey coastal zonation and soil profiles respectively. I built a ‘Japanese garden’ for the NCCPG at the very first Hampton Court Flower Show and designed the interpretive Bee Garden which used to reside near Kew Palace. We worked in numerous living collection and administrative departments including ‘Planning’; one of my roles was liaising with film crews, book publishers, TV companies and celebrities (inc. David Bellamy), who wanted to use the gardens for filming and photo-shoots.  A high point was winning two Travel Scholarship awards which allowed me to investigate ecosystems in Central America, both on land and around the coast via SCUBA; surveying mangrove swamps, seagrass lagoons and coral reefs with ‘Coral Cay Conservation’ (but that’s another story!).

After three years at R.B.G. Kew and a fourth intermediate industrial placement year with Clifton Nurseries’ landscape team (during 1990-1991, which incidentally is where I fortuitously first met Chris Bowles and John Wyer), I managed to graduate with Honours as the highest scoring student of each year; the focused study and sacrifices had paid off.

So the next time a gardener passes your way, have a thought for where they have been or where they could be headed. They may have rich stories to tell and extensive knowledge to call upon; your garden could greatly benefit from their experiences.

by Jeff Stephenson.

Designer to Design Director by James Smith

I’ve been working at Bowles & Wyer for 12 years now, that’s a long time I hear you say! Well yes, it certainly is but, to be honest it really hasn’t felt like it. I have been fortunate to work on some great projects during this time, honing my skills as a designer and project manager and working with some amazingly talented people along the way. I have had the freedom to enjoy my work, with my respected directors John Wyer and Chris Bowles, having given me enough rope to take chances, make mistakes and learn from them. Without this trust I would never have progressed into the position I find myself in as Design Director of Bowles & Wyer, a role I am very proud of. Trust without a doubt breeds motivation, creativity and success!

When I started out at Bowles & Wyer in 2005 the Iphone hadn’t even been introduced to the market and tablets were only of the medicinal kind! Edgar Davids (the chap with the odd specs) was playing for my beloved Tottenham Hotspur and the office was located in a cosy attic of a shared building in Berkhamsted. I remember my start date well, both nervous and excited, plus my eldest son Noah was born a couple of weeks after, making life even more interesting. He is now in his first year of secondary school and it’s scary how time moves on in the blink of an eye! I’ve had some ups and downs over the years as everyone does, I have been divorced and remarried in that time, and count myself very fortunate to have an amazingly supportive wife in Becky, and a young family of 5 fun loving and characterful children (Isla 15, Rosie 13, Noah 11, Isaac 11 and Finley 3) Life is never dull in our world and the fridge is never full for long!

Although many things have changed over the years, there are of course some reassuring constants, Bowles & Wyer is still a great place to work, we continue to take on and deliver the highest quality schemes, and the powerful 10am coffee can always be relied on to reset the pulse (brew for 4 minutes, no more, no less!) Plus John Wyer’s hair cut hasn’t changed one bit!

Now, I will be the first to admit, I never saw myself as a natural front man let alone Design Director, I haven’t always embraced the limelight over the years and I can be very quiet at times (the power of silence is a wonderful thing!). I am however fully aware that being introverted at times, means I can go unnoticed in a world and industry increasingly saturated by extroverts. My challenge to myself over the coming months and years is to work on this, raise my profile more in my own way and above all help to further promote Bowles & Wyer from the front foot. During my 12 years as a designer I have never stopped learning and listening, and never will, that’s the beauty of our profession. This has made me confident of holding my own against the best designers in our industry, I have just preferred to let my portfolio do the talking for me. The projects I am most proud of to date are The Lancasters (detailed design and project management), Eaton Square (concept to completion) A Surrey garden (BALI Grand Award winner) and more recently a Regents Park Garden (BALI Award Winner) and a large country garden in Cookham (recently finished). They all have different elements I am proud of but, above all they have felt like a real team effort to create and maintain.

A Regents Park Garden

Despite the varied and successful schemes we have worked on to date, I know there is so much more to come at Bowles & Wyer, and as Design Director, with a talented design team around me, I am convinced we will hit even greater highs over the coming years. So like my first day at the office, is it with nervous excitement that I look forward to the next chapter!

Eaton Square

Light, time and landscape

When I first started thinking about a career, I wanted to be a town planner. There was something about the scale of it that appealed to the teenage me – the ability to plan whole towns with a sweep of your hand. Later I moved on to architecture, before finally settling on landscape design. These days I am also much involved with garden design. Of course there is much in common between these fields – indeed, all the various design disciplines have fuzzy edges – they overlap and merge one into another.
However, I have long been interested in what sets landscape apart from the others. Clearly, the unique element is plants, but the simplicity of this statement belies its huge implications. A building or any other designed object generally looks at its best on day one. It is closest to the designer’s intentions when it is newly finished. True, with the passing of time buildings (as with most things) develop a pleasant patina of age, but this is incidental to the designer’s intentions. However, landscape architects and garden designers work with a different medium. Planting design is complex enough as it is – a bit like working with an orchestra. Each plant has different shapes, colours textures and requirements. But of course, plants are living things; they change and grow. They do so at different rates and with differing habits. This means that a landscape is constantly changing; it will never look the same twice. Planning for this can be a complex task, made more difficult by the huge number of variables involved. But whilst this makes the task trickier, it also introduces serendipity into the process. I am often surprised in schemes that I have designed by unexpected combinations of plants at particular times of year. Sometimes it is because one has grown more quickly or slowly than I planned or possibly migrated within the planted areas to a different position.
The real joy though is not the long-term changes, but the way a landscape changes month to month, day to day, even minute to minute. Being living things plants react to their environment. Their leaves and branches move with the wind or sag with the weight of rainwater.  And we have all had that sudden rush of emotion when walking through woodland or across fields when the sun suddenly comes out and transforms the landscape in a second, sunlight lancing trough foliage to pick out an area on the ground. Light is integral to how we perceive the world, not just in the obvious sense, but in all its subtlety. Landscape designers lay on this.

I often put tall grasses or lightly foliaged tall shrubs where I know they will catch the late low afternoon light. Early morning or late afternoon light can be very dramatic, but also lends a warmth and softness to a landscape because of its colour.

Good design with artificial light also makes use of this luminosity of foliage. It tends to accentuate both the high points and shadows, but it is the effect of light passing through leaves that gives glowing greens and yellows. This effect needs to be used sparingly, or the abundance of the jewelled colours dulls their impact. Artificial light can also bring a new perception and definition to form quite different to that of natural light. By doing so it adds drama, but the beauty of this is that it only works because it is such a contrast to the natural light we take for granted.

The ability of landscapes to change with time is what drew me to landscape design. And is that very seasonality and freshness that brings joy. We notice and react to change – bulbs bursting through the soil or leaves turning to autumn shades. And no matter how long I have been doing this, the capacity of landscapes to surprise me remains a constant source of delight.

[This post was written as a guest blog for Nulty+ lighting design – www.nultylighting.co.uk]

Anatomy of a sketch.

It’s been a while since I last posted. Other things intervened; you know: life, the universe and everything.

I have always been fascinated between the balance between use of digital and hand media in both design process and presentation drawings. The process is influenced by the medium, and in turn influences the output. Some people are adamantly pro-digital and others insist that hand drawings are the only way. Sometimes these positions are held with an almost religious fervour. Although I am old enough to have been trained with only hand media, I have a fascination for digital tools as well. I am a firm believer (there we go again – religiosity!) in the simple connection between brain/eye and hand when designing. Nothing works quite as well as a fat felt pen or a soft pencil on white detail paper. The freedom of movement and thought that this brings is unrivalled; digital programs tend to make designers focus on detail too early in the process.

There is also the question of what clients relate best to, which varies with individuals. I well remember a morning a few years ago when I attended two client presentations one after the other, both with quite polished CGI-style renderings with sophisticated light and shade. At the first, the client was ecstatic about the design and presentation, remarking on easy it was to understand everything. At the second, the client was almost monosyllabic, and afterwards the architect (who had been biting his tongue in the meeting) tore me off a strip for the method of presentation – “they’re alright for people like us [i.e. design professionals] but clients like hand drawings”. We used to get into similar muddles with plans, although these days we have a protocol for design plans. For initial presentations we use CAD layouts to start with, but generally trace over by hand before rendering in a watercolour style in Photoshop. This is partly because people react well to hand drawn plans, but also because at sketch design stage we want to give the impression of flexibility, of not every detail having been resolved. The same applies to planning applications. At later stages (such as discharge of conditions) the reverse is true and we always use CAD drawings in black and white.

SketchUp is an enormously powerful tool. It has been revolutionary in design as an accessible method of exploring three dimensions, in garden design in particular. However, its influence has in some cases become somewhat insidious. I have written about this in two previous posts, both worth dipping into:  I’ve been using it increasingly, but I never touch it, and Thinking Outside the [White Rendered] Box. Actually I think as a profession we are beginning to move away from this now. The last two ‘best in show’ gardens at Chelsea illustrate this: Dan Pearson’s 2015 Chatsworth Garden and in particular Andy Sturgeon’s 2016 garden, which demonstrates a move towards a more angular dynamic approach to geometry.

For perspectives, having veered between different poles, we have now developed a hybrid method which seems to work well. Schemes are initially designed by hand, as is mostly the way in this office, with CAD layouts following soon afterwards. But for areas for which we are producing perspectives – often those that need further exploration or explanation – we develop 3D digital models, usually in SketchUp (geo-located for accuracy).

Fully rendered SketchUp tends to be rich in colour, but this can often be distracting.

In the past we have prepared fully rendered SketchUp models, but these days they are generally in plain white. Occasionally we show these to clients, but mostly we just use them to explore the space and elements. If you show clients fully rendered models, they tend to take them too literally. Once we are happy with the design, we output a view before using it as a base for a hand sketch.

 

 

The line sketch. Note that this is really simple with no hatch, shading or detail. This is all added later.

These are simple unshaded line drawings, intended as a base for further rendering. We then scan the sketch and import a shadow layer directly from the 3D model, which adds greater depth and realism.

A shadow map layer, taken directly from the SketchUp model

Finally, the drawing is rendered in Photoshop using watercolour brushes. Although the whole process sounds laborious, it is actually relatively quick. Even so, there are often two or three people working on it sometimes with input or advice from others; we tend to work very collaboratively here.

The finished sketch – light and airy with plenty of atmosphere. It has the advantage of showing detail where you want it but without being too literal.

The final result is usually graceful and airy, capturing something of the mood of the space whilst giving a genuine feel for the scale and texture. It is not for every project, but for those when you get short, infrequent slots with the client in which you have to work hard, this method is ideal.

What top 5 things should you consider when designing a garden over a basement?

 

The first time I designed a garden over a basement (more than 25 years ago) it was unusual enough to be of significant interest (even bemusement) to colleagues. These days they are so common as to be almost ubiquitous in Central London. However, they pose considerable technical challenges which have the potential to really compromise the scheme if they are not dealt with. So what are the principal concerns to bear in mind?

  1. Drainage. This is the biggie (along with no. 2 below).
    Taken during construction. You can see the gullies as small black circles dropping through the slab.
    Taken during construction. You can see the gullies as small black circles dropping through the slab.

    If you don’t know the answer to the question ‘How is the basement slab being drained?’ then find out sharpish. It is really important to understand the drainage strategy and to design the landscape accordingly. There are two basic strategies: drain off the edge of the slab (often to land drains) or drain through the slab. The latter involves gullies in the concrete which drop through to suspended drainage in the space beneath. The former is more common these days, particularly as new basement guidelines form Central London planning authorities mean that there is generally 50% of the garden left undeveloped. However, it does raise issues: are there structures such as upstand beams which impede the drainage? Which direction do they run in? Another point to consider is whether there are any requirements for drainage attenuation by the local authority. These generally take the form of ‘drainage blankets’ which slow down the water so that it doesn’t all leave the slab and enter the public system at the same time. If the drainage is through the slab, then if possible, build in some form of inspection for the gullies from above.

  2. Build-up. It is really vital that you get the build-up right. If you do nothing else on a basement project, do this. Sixteen years ago, we were involved with a scheme for a 1,200m2 podium garden over a basement car park. We used a ‘drainage layer’ of about 150mm of clean gravel, geotextile and then topsoil. At its
    Another construction shot. Path with type 3 in the centre, black geotex over type 3 in the foreground, washed sand (buff) subsoil in the background and rootzone (brown) over on the right.
    Another construction shot. Path with type 3 in the centre, black geotex over type 3 in the foreground, washed sand (buff) subsoil in the background and top layer of rootzone (brown) over on the right.

    deepest this was 800mm, although much of the deeper zones were made up with expanded polystyrene (EPS) to reduce weight. Within three years the profile was showing signs of poor drainage and soon we saw water in evidence at the base of the inspection tubes we had built into the scheme. As a result of this, on deeper build-ups (intensive gardens) we now use layers of graded washed sharp sand followed by sand-dominated rootzone mixtures. This allows a robust, free-draining growing medium that remains well aerated and maintains its structure. It also encourages deeper rooting ensuring that plants are less reliant on irrigation and more on water stored in the deeper layers of the build-up. The use of EPS is also something we are careful about now. It acts as a block to drainage, so it is essential to build in sizeable drainage clefts between the blocks – around 100mm wide is normally sufficient.

  3. Interventions. This is the one that gets sprung on you when you least expect it. Just when you understand the drainage, you’ve got all your layouts sorted, someone announces that an intake vent (or worse an exhaust vent) from the swimming pool is needed, or a chiller cabinet enclosure, or an escape
    One solution for mechanical venting.
    One solution for mechanical venting. Plant containers sit atop a stone and timber clad cabinet.

    stair, or sometimes all of them! Big basements need a lot of plant and inevitably a lot of this will have a significant effect on the garden, so try and plan for it. Ask in advance what the likely requirements are and incorporate features into the design that they can be integrated into. Ventilation generally falls into two categories: mechanically aided and ‘natural’. The latter tends to only be used for car parking areas. The disadvantage is that you can end up with quite large areas of venting to hide, but there is no background noise and very little air movement, so they can easily be screened with plants. Mechanical venting is a different matter – particularly extract vents, which can desiccate foliage. With basement car parks, access needs to be considered. Except on the largest projects, ramps generally take up too much room so often the solution is car lifts, which can have quite an impact. These days regulations have changed and they frequently need an enclosure, so bear that in mind. Escape stairs are another thing that can sometimes make a late appearance; sometimes they can be incorporated into no 4:

  4. Lightwells. They can be irritating as they often tend to act as a division between the building and the garden. However, try and think of these as opportunities rather than intrusions. There is now a vast array
    Lightwells can be fun!
    Lightwells can be fun! Treat staircases as sculptural elements and be creative with different finishes.

    of wall finishes available to designers. Trellis or timber slats we are all familiar with. However, metal – patinated or acid etched zinc, copper, steel are all interesting options. Strip or textured stone are also available in a wide range of finishes. There are increasingly interesting polymer or GRP finishes – look at OltreMateria for example. Water features, mirrors, and green walls – both living and fake – (*gasp!*) all play a part here, but obviously you need to look carefully at lighting, both for effect and if you need to boost light levels for plant growth (Metal Halide lamps are far better for this – they emit more useable energy than LEDs in the blue and red wavelengths that plants need for photosynthesis). Try using different materials in combination and incorporate items like stairs as sculptural features.

  5. Rooflights. With big basements (particularly those for habitable space) these make frequent appearances.
    This scheme had circular rooflights as giant water lily water features.
    This scheme had circular rooflights as giant water lily water features.

    There are two approaches here: relegate to somewhere in the garden where they are a sideshow rather than centre stage, or alternatively make a feature of them. If you’re going for the ‘quiet’ option, try to agree long slots with the architect and engineer – these are easier to hide and can often be at the periphery of basement rooms casting light down a wall. Big square or rectangular roof lights are more difficult. If they are to one side of the scheme, they can look quite good. Alternatively, try using them as a water feature. Lots of technical issues to consider here, but we have done it a couple of times

There are plenty of other things to consider, but that is my top 5 list of things that you are most likely to come across. The earlier you can get involved in these sort of projects the better. If all the decisions are already taken by the time you are appointed, you will end up trying to sort out technical issues that may be les than ideal.

If you have had interesting experiences of your own you want to share, or if you have any questions, just add a comment below as normal.